Dogma, implikasinya, dan daftar dogma

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Ada banyak pertanyaan tentang dogma, siapa yang menentukan, dan apakah implikasi dogma dalam kehidupan umat beriman. Lebih jauh lagi, artikel ini juga memaparkan daftar dogma.

Tentang dogma

Dogma sendiri dapat didefinisikan sebagai “A teaching of the Church revealed implicitly or explicitly by Sacred Scripture or Sacred Tradition, to be believed by the faithful by virtue of solemn definition or the Church’s ordinary Magisterium. For a teaching to be a “dogma,” the specific truth must have been formally revealed and taught as such by the Church; in addition, the dogma must be proposed as binding on the faithful. Hence, the dogma’s acceptance is necessary for salvation.” (Reverend Peter M.J. Stravinskas, Ph.D., S.T.L. Our Sunday Visitor’s Catholic Encyclopedia. Copyright © 1994, Our Sunday Visitor)

Atau dalam bahasa Indonesia: “Sebuah pengajaran dari Gereja yang secara implisit maupun eksplisit dinyatakan oleh Kitab Suci atau Tradisi Suci, yang dipercaya oleh umat beriman karena pemakluman agung atau wewenang mengajar yang biasa dari Gereja. Agar sebuah pengajaran menjadi sebuah dogma, kebenaran yang spesifik harus secara formal pernah dinyatakan dan diajarkan oleh Gereja; sebagai tambahan, dogma adalah mengikat umat beriman. Oleh karena itu, penerimaan dogma diperlukan untuk keselamatan.”

Dari definisi ini, maka kita dapat menyimpulkan beberapa hal:

1) Dalam hal ini “implicitly” dan “explicitly” berhubungan dengan kebenaran yang hendak dinyatakan. Para teolog membaginya menjadi tiga bagian, yaitu:

a) Kebenaran yang dinyatakan secara formal (formally) dan eksplisit (explicitly). Kebenaran dinyatakan secara formal jika pembicara atau yang memberikan wahyu benar-benar secara jelas menyatakan untuk menyampaikan kebenaran tersebut dan menjamin pernyataan tersebut dengan otoritas. Pada saat pernyataan tersebut dinyatakan secara jelas dan dengan ekpresi kata-kata yang jelas, maka kebenaran tersebut dinyatakan secara eksplisit. Otoritas dalam hal ini dapat berupa Tuhan, yang memang mempunyai otoritas tertinggi, dan dapat juga Gereja Katolik – melalui Paus (ketika berbicara ex-cathedra), konsili-konsili dan juga Magisterium Gereja – yang diberikan kuasa oleh Tuhan sendiri (lih KGK, 88). Contoh dari kategori ini adalah semua pertanyataan di dalam doa “Aku Percaya”.

b) Kebenaran yang dinyatakan secara formal (formally), namun tersirat (implicitly). Secara tersirat, terjadi kalau perkataan yang digunakan tidak terlalu jelas atau langsung. Oleh karena itu diperlukan suatu interpretasi yang baik, sehingga tidak menyimpang dari kebenaran yang hendak disampaikan. Di dalam Gereja Katolik, Paus pada saat berbicara ex-cathedra, konsili-konsili dan Magisterium Gereja dipercaya untuk dapat menyatakan dan mengartikan kebenaran yang tersirat dengan benar. Contoh kebenaran dalam kategori ini misalkan: transubstantiation, papal infallibility, Maria diangkat ke Sorga, Maria dikandung tanpa dosa asal, dll.

c) Kebenaran yang “virtually” dinyatakan. Kebenaran yang tidak secara formal dijamin oleh perkataan dari pembicara, namun suatu kebenaran yang disimpulkan dari kebenaran yang telah dinyatakan secara formal. Dan dalam prosesnya, kebenaran yang virtually revealed dapat menjadi kebenaran yang formal dan implisit, kalau Magisterium Gereja menyatakannya sebagai dogma.

2) Ada tiga pilar kebenaran di dalam Gereja Katolik yang harus dipegang teguh, yaitu a) Kitab Suci, b) Tradisi Suci, 3) Magisterium Suci / kewenangan mengajar. Dan suatu kebenaran dinyatakan sebagai dogma, kalau secara formal telah dinyatakan sebagai dogma oleh Gereja Katolik, namun kebenaran tersebut harus mempunyai dasar dari Kitab Suci yang didukung dalam Tradisi Suci.

Siapa yang menentukan dogma?

Katekismus Gereja Katolik (KGK 88) menuliskan sebagai berikut “Wewenang Mengajar Gereja menggunakan secara penuh otoritas yang diterimanya dari Kristus, apabila ia mendefinisikan dogma-dogma, artinya apabila dalam satu bentuk yang mewajibkan umat Kristen dalam iman dan yang tidak dapat ditarik kembali, ia mengajukan kebenaran-kebenaran yang tercantum di dalam wahyu ilahi atau secara mutlak berhubungan dengan kebenaran-kebenaran demikian.” Dengan kata lain, wewenang mengajar (Magisterium) Gereja diberi kuasa oleh Kristus untuk mengajar (lih. Mat 16:16-19) dan demikian dapat mendefinisikan dogma. Dogma dapat diberikan melalui pernyataan agung (solemn definition) melalui Paus – ketika dia berbicara ex-catedra (lihat keterangan ini – silakan klik), dan juga dalam konsili umum (general council), maupun juga kewenangan mengajar biasa.

Contoh perkembangan dogma:

Beberapa contoh perkembangan dogma telah dijelaskan dalam beberapa artikel, seperti:

1) Dogma yang bersifat formal dan eksplisit: tentang Tritunggal Maha Kudus (silakan klik).

2) Dogma yang bersifat formal dan implisit: tentang Bunda Maria dikandung tanpa noda (silakan klik).

Implikasi pada umat beriman terhadap dogma

Dogma adalah pernyataan tentang kebenaran yang dinyatakan secara resmi oleh Gereja demi keselamatan umatnya. Dengan pernyataan resmi dari Gereja, maka kita dapat yakin bahwa kebenaran yang dinyatakan adalah benar, yang dapat bersumber pada Alkitab, Tradisi Suci, maupun Magisterium Gereja – dimana ketiganya tidak mungkin saling bertentangan, karena kebenaran tidak mungkin saling bertentangan. Dan pada saat kita mengatakan kita beriman, maka kita percaya kepada otoritas yang menyatakannya. Dalam hal ini otoritas kita bersumber pada Tuhan dan Gereja yang telah diberikan kuasa oleh Tuhan untuk menyatakan kebenaran. Oleh karena itu, iman yang benar adalah “obedience of faith“, dimana kita taat akan kebenaran yang dinyatakan.

Kebenaran yang mana? Semua kebenaran yang dinyatakan oleh Gereja, dan bukan setengah-setengah. Pada saat seseorang mengatakan bahwa dia setuju dengan dogma A, namun tidak setuju dengan dogma B, maka dia menempatkan dirinya lebih tinggi dari Gereja yang telah diberikan kuasa oleh Tuhan. Oleh karena itu, pada saat dia – yang telah dibaptis – memilih-milih dogma atau kebenaran yang seharusnya dipercayainya, maka dia telah melakukan dosa “heresy” atau bidah. Disebut Murtad kalau menolak semua iman kepercayaan kristiani, dan disebut skisma kalau menolak persatuan dengan Paus.

Katekismus Gereja Katolik (KGK, 2089) mengatakan “Ketidakpercayaan berarti tidak menghiraukan kebenaran yang diwahyukan atau menolak dengan sengaja untuk menerimanya. “Disebut bidah kalau menyangkal atau meragu-ragukan dengan tegas suatu kebenaran yang sebenarnya harus diimani dengan sikap iman ilahi dan katolik, sesudah penerimam Sakramen Pembaptisan; disebut murtad kalau menyangkal iman-kepercayaan kristiani secara menyeluruh; disebut skisma kalau menolak ketaklukan kepada Sri Paus atau persekutuan dengan anggota-anggota Gereja yang takluk kepadanya” (CIC, can. 751).

Dosa bidah (heresy) dapat dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu “formal heresy” dan “material heresy“. Disebut formal heresy kalau seseorang tahu secara pasti bahwa dia mempercayai sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan pengajaran Gereja, dan orang tersebut tetap menolak pengajaran Gereja, walaupun telah diterangkan secara baik akan kebenaran yang telah dinyatakan oleh Gereja. Sebaliknya, material heresy dilakukan kalau seseorang secara tidak sengaja mempercayai suatu hal yang bertentangan dengan pengajaran Gereja. Namun, setelah orang tersebut tahu apa yang diajarkan oleh Gereja secara benar, maka dengan kerendahan hati dia mengubah apa yang dipercayainya sehingga sesuai dengan apa yang dipercayai oleh Gereja. Dari pengertian ini, formal heresy adalah berbahaya dan merupakan dosa berat, karena membuat seseorang tidak mempunyai iman yang bersifat supernatural, namun iman yang berdasarkan pada pertimbangan pribadi.

Daftar dogma menurut Dr. Ludwig Ott dalam bukunya “Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma”

Daftar dogma berikut ini, saya ambil dari site ini (silakan klik). Secara prinsip, daftar ini mengambil semua pernyataan “de fide” (of faith) di dalam buku Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma. Berikut ini adalah daftarnya:

I. The Unity and Trinity of God

  1. God, our Creator and Lord, can be known with certainty, by the natural light of reason from created things.
  2. God’s existence is not merely an object of rational knowledge, but also an object of supernatural faith.
  3. God’s Nature is incomprehensible to men.
  4. The blessed in Heaven possess an immediate intuitive knowledge of the Divine Essence.
  5. The immediate vision of God transcends the natural power of cognition of the human soul, and is therefore supernatural.
  6. The soul, for the immediate vision of God, requires the light of glory.
  7. God’s Essence is also incomprehensible to the blessed in Heaven.
  8. The divine attributes are really identical among themselves and with the Divine Essence.
  9. God is absolutely perfect.
  10. God is actually infinite in every perfection.
  11. God is absolutely simple.
  12. There is only one God.
  13. The one God is, in the ontological sense, the true God.
  14. God possesses an infinite power of cognition.
  15. God is absolute veracity.
  16. God is absolutely faithful.
  17. God is absolute ontological goodness in Himself and in relation to others.
  18. God is absolute moral goodness or holiness.
  19. God is absolute benignity.
  20. God is absolutely immutable.
  21. God is eternal.
  22. God is immense or absolutely immeasurable.
  23. God is everywhere present in created space.
  24. God’s knowledge is infinite.
  25. God’s knowledge is purely and simply actual.
  26. God’s knowledge is subsistent.
  27. God knows all that is merely possible by the knowledge of simple intelligence.
  28. God knows all real things in the past, the present and the future.
  29. By the knowledge of vision, God also foresees the future free acts of rational creatures with infallible certainty.
  30. God’s Divine Will is infinite.
  31. God loves Himself of necessity, but loves and wills the creation of extra-divine things, on the other hand, with freedom.
  32. God is almighty.
  33. God is the Lord of the heavens and of the earth.
  34. God is infinitely just.
  35. God is infinitely merciful.
  36. In God there are three Persons, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. Each of the three Persons possesses the one (numerical) Divine Essence.
  37. In God there are two internal divine processions.
  38. The Divine Persons, not the Divine Nature, are the subject of the internal divine processions (in the active and in the passive sense).
  39. The Second Divine Person proceeds from the First Divine Person by generation, and therefore is related to Him as Son to Father.
  40. The Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and from the Son as from a single principle through a single spiration.
  41. The Holy Ghost does not proceed through generation but through spiration.
  42. The relations in God are really identical with the Divine Nature.
  43. The Three Divine Persons are in one another.
  44. All the ad extra activities of God are common to the three Persons.

II. God the Creator

  1. All that exists outside God was, in its whole substance, produced out of nothing by God.
  2. God was moved by His goodness to create the world.
  3. The world was created for the glorification of God.
  4. The Three Divine Persons are one single, common principle of creation.
  5. God created the world free from exterior compulsion and inner necessity.
  6. God has created a good world.
  7. The world had a beginning in time.
  8. God alone created the world.
  9. God keeps all created things in existence.
  10. God, through His Providence, protects and guides all that He has created.
  11. The first man was created by God.
  12. Man consists of two essential parts – a material body and a spiritual soul.
  13. The rational soul per se is the essential form of the body.
  14. Every human being possesses an individual soul.
  15. God has conferred on man a supernatural destiny.
  16. Our first parents, before the fall, were endowed with sanctifying grace.
  17. In addition to sanctifying grace, our first parents were endowed with the preternatural gift of bodily immortality.
  18. Our first parents in Paradise sinned grievously through transgression of the Divine probationary commandment.
  19. Through sin our first parents lost sanctifying grace and provoked the anger and the indignation of God.
  20. Our first parents became subject to death and to the dominion of the devil.
  21. Adam’s sin is transmitted to his posterity, not by imitation but by descent.
  22. Original sin is transmitted by natural generation.
  23. In the state of original sin man is deprived of sanctifying grace and all that this implies, as well as of the preternatural gifts of integrity.
  24. Souls who depart this life in the state of original sin are excluded from the Beatific Vision of God.
  25. In the beginning of time God created spiritual essences (angels) out of nothing.
  26. The nature of angels is spiritual.
  27. The evil spirits (demons) were created good by God; they became evil through their own fault.
  28. The secondary task of the good angels is the protection of men and care for their salvation.
  29. The devil possesses a certain dominion over mankind by reason of Adam’s sin.

III. God the Redeemer

  1. Jesus Christ is true God and true Son of God.
  2. Christ assumed a real body, not an apparent body.
  3. Christ assumed not only a body but also a rational soul.
  4. Christ was truly generated and born of a daughter of Adam, the Virgin Mary.
  5. The Divine and human natures are united hypostatically in Christ, that is, joined to each other in one Person.
  6. In the hypostatic union each of the two natures of Christ continues unimpaired, untransformed, and unmixed with each other.
  7. Each of the two natures in Christ possesses its own natural will and its own natural mode of operation.
  8. The hypostatic union of Christ’s human nature with the Divine Logos took place at the moment of conception.
  9. The hypostatic union will never cease.
  10. The hypostatic union was effected by the three Divine Persons acting in common.
  11. Only the second Divine Person became Man.
  12. Not only as God but also as man Jesus Christ is the natural Son of God.
  13. The God-Man Jesus Christ is to be venerated with one single mode of worship, the absolute worship of latria which is due to God alone.
  14. Christ’s Divine and human characteristics and activities are to be predicated of the one Word Incarnate.
  15. Christ was free from all sin, from original sin as well as from all personal sin.
  16. Christ’s human nature was passible.
  17. The Son of God became man in order to redeem men.
  18. Fallen man cannot redeem himself.
  19. The God-man Jesus Christ is a high priest.
  20. Christ offered Himself on the Cross as a true and proper sacrifice.
  21. Christ by His sacrifice on the Cross has ransomed us and reconciled us with God.
  22. Christ, through His passion and death, merited award from God.
  23. After His death, Christ’s Soul, which was separated from His Body, descended into the underworld.
  24. On the third day after His death, Christ rose gloriously from the dead.
  25. Christ ascended body and soul into Heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father.

IV. The Mother of the Redeemer

  1. Mary is truly the Mother of God.
  2. Mary was conceived without the stain of original sin.
  3. Mary is the Immaculate Conception.
  4. Mary conceived by the Holy Ghost without the cooperation of man.
  5. Mary bore her Son without any violation of her virginal integrity.
  6. After the birth of Jesus, Mary remained a Virgin.
  7. Mary was assumed body and soul into Heaven.

V. God the Sanctifier

  1. There is a supernatural intervention of God in the faculties of the soul, which precedes the free act of the will.
  2. There is a supernatural influence of God in the faculties of the soul which coincides in time with man’s free act of will.
  3. For every salutary act, internal supernatural grace of God (gratia elevans) is absolutely necessary.
  4. Internal supernatural grace is absolutely necessary for the beginning of faith and salvation.
  5. Without the special help of God, the justified cannot persevere to the end in justification.
  6. The justified person is not able for his whole life long to avoid sins, even venial sins, without the special privilege of the grace of God.
  7. Even in the fallen state, man can, by his natural intellectual power, know religious and moral truths.
  8. For the performance of a morally good action, sanctifying grace is not required.
  9. In the state of fallen nature, it is morally impossible for man without supernatural Revelation, to know easily, with absolute certainty, and without admixture of error, all religious and moral truths of the natural order.
  10. Grace cannot be merited by natural works either de condigno or de congruo.
  11. God gives all the just sufficient grace for the observation of the divine commandments.
  12. God, by His eternal resolve of Will, has predetermined certain men to eternal blessedness.
  13. God, by an eternal resolve of His Will, predestines certain men, on account of their foreseen sins, to eternal rejection.
  14. The human will remains free under the influence of efficacious grace, which is not irresistible.
  15. There is grace which is truly sufficient and yet remains inefficacious.
  16. The causes of Justification. (Defined by the Council of Trent) :
    1. The final cause is the honour of God and of Christ and the eternal life of men.
    2. The efficient cause is the mercy of God.
    3. The meritorious cause is Jesus Christ, who as mediator between God and men, has made atonement for us and merited the grace by which we are justified.
    4. The instrumental cause of the first justification is the Sacrament of Baptism. Thus it defines that Faith is a necessary precondition for justification (of adults).
    5. The formal cause is God’s Justice, not by which He Himself is just, but which He makes us just, that is, Sanctifying Grace.
  17. The sinner can and must prepare himself by the help of actual grace for the reception of the grace by which he is justified.
  18. The justification of an adult is not possible without faith.
  19. Besides faith, further acts of disposition must be present.
  20. Sanctifying grace sanctifies the soul.
  21. Sanctifying grace makes the just man a friend of God.
  22. Sanctifying grace makes the just man a child of God and gives him a claim to the inheritance of heaven.
  23. The three Divine or theological virtues of faith, hope and charity are infused with sanctifying grace.
  24. Without special Divine Revelation no one can know with the certainty of faith, if he be in the state of grace.
  25. The degree of justifying grace is not identical in all the just.
  26. Grace can be increased by good works.
  27. The grace by which we are justified may be lost, and is lost by every grievous sin.
  28. By his good works, the justified man really acquires a claim to supernatural reward from God.
  29. A just man merits for himself through each good work an increase of sanctifying grace, eternal life (if death finds him in the state of grace) and an increase in heavenly glory.

VI. The Catholic Church

  1. The Catholic Church was founded by the God-Man Jesus Christ.
  2. Christ founded the Catholic Church in order to continue His work of redemption for all time.
  3. Christ gave His Church a hierarchical constitution.
  4. The powers bestowed on the Apostles have descended to the Bishops.
  5. Christ appointed the Apostle Peter to be the first of all the Apostles and to be the visible Head of the whole Catholic Church, by appointing him immediately and personally to the primacy of jurisdiction.
  6. According to Christ’s ordinance, Peter is to have successors in his Primacy over the whole Catholic Church and for all time.
  7. The successors of Peter in the Primacy are the Bishops of Rome.
  8. The Pope possesses full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Catholic Church, not merely in matters of faith and morals, but also in Church discipline and in the government of the Church.
  9. The Pope is infallible when he speaks ex cathedra.
  10. By virtue of Divine right, the bishops possess an ordinary power of government over their dioceses.
  11. Christ founded the Catholic Church.
  12. Christ is the Head of the Catholic Church.
  13. In the final decision on doctrines concerning faith and morals, the Catholic Church is infallible.
  14. The primary object of the Infallibility is the formally revealed truths of Christian Doctrine concerning faith and morals.
  15. The totality of the Bishops is infallible, when they, either assembled in general council or scattered over the earth propose a teaching of faith or morals as one to he held by all the faithful.
  16. The Church founded by Christ is unique and one.
  17. The Church founded by Christ is holy.
  18. The Church founded by Christ is catholic.
  19. The Church founded by Christ is apostolic.
  20. Membership of the Catholic Church is necessary for all men for salvation.

VII. The Communion of Saints

  1. It is permissible and profitable to venerate the Saints in Heaven, and to invoke their intercession.
  2. It is permissible and profitable to venerate the relics of the Saints.
  3. It is permissible and profitable to venerate images of the Saints.
  4. The living faithful can come to the assistance of the souls in Purgatory by their intercessions.

VIII. The Sacraments

  1. The Sacraments of the New Covenant contain the grace which they signify, and bestow it on those who do not hinder it.
  2. The Sacraments work ex opere operato, that is, the sacraments operate by the power of the completed sacramental rite.
  3. All the Sacraments of the New Covenant confer sanctifying grace on the receivers.
  4. Three Sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders, imprint a character, that is an indelible spiritual mark, and, for this reason, cannot be repeated.
  5. The sacramental character is a spiritual mark imprinted on the soul.
  6. The sacramental character continues at least until the death of the bearer.
  7. All Sacraments of the New Covenant were instituted by Jesus Christ.
  8. There are seven Sacraments of the New Law.
  9. The Sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for the salvation of mankind.
  10. The validity and efficacy of the Sacrament is independent of the minister’s orthodoxy and state of grace.
  11. For the valid dispensing of the Sacraments it is necessary that the minister accomplish the Sacramental sign in the proper manner.
  12. The minister must have the intention of at least doing what the Church does.
  13. In the case of adult recipients moral worthiness is necessary for the worthy or fruitful reception of the Sacraments.

IX. Baptism

  1. Baptism is a true Sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ.
  2. The materia remota of the Sacrament of Baptism is true and natural water.
  3. Baptism confers the grace of justification.
  4. Baptism effects the remission of all punishments of sin, both eternal and temporal.
  5. Even if it be unworthily received, valid Baptism imprints on the soul of the recipient an indelible spiritual mark, the Baptismal Character, and for this reason, the Sacrament cannot be repeated.
  6. Baptism by water (Baptismus fluminis) is, since the promulgation of the Gospel, necessary for all men without exception for salvation.
  7. Baptism can be validly administered by anyone.
  8. Baptism can be received by any person in the wayfaring state who is not already baptised.
  9. The Baptism of young children is valid and licit.

X. Confirmation

  1. Confirmation is a true Sacrament properly so-called.
  2. Confirmation imprints on the soul an indelible spiritual mark, and for this reason, cannot be repeated.
  3. The ordinary minister of Confirmation is the Bishop alone.

XI. Holy Eucharist

  1. The Body and Blood of Jesus Christ are truly, really, and substantially present in the Eucharist.
  2. Christ becomes present in the Sacrament of the Altar by the transformation of the whole substance of the bread into His Body and of the whole substance of the wine into His Blood.
  3. The accidents of bread and wine continue after the change of the substance.
  4. The Body and Blood of Christ together with His Soul and Divinity and therefore, the whole Christ, are truly present in the Eucharist.
  5. The Whole Christ is present under each of the two Species.
  6. When either consecrated Species is divided, the Whole Christ is present in each part of the Species.
  7. After the Consecration has been completed the Body and Blood are permanently present in the Eucharist.
  8. The Worship of Adoration (latria) must be given to Christ present in the Eucharist.
  9. The Eucharist is a true Sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ.
  10. The matter for the consummation of the Eucharist is bread and wine.
  11. For children before the age of reason, the reception of the Eucharist is not necessary for salvation.
  12. Communion under two forms is not necessary for any individual members of the Faithful, either by reason of Divine precept or as a means of salvation.
  13. The power of consecration resides in a validly consecrated priest only .
  14. The Sacrament of the Eucharist can be validly received by every baptised person in the wayfaring state, including young children.
  15. For the worthy reception of the Eucharist, the state of grace as well as the proper and pious disposition are necessary.
  16. The Holy Mass is a true and proper Sacrifice.
  17. In the Sacrifice of the Mass, Christ’s Sacrifice on the Cross is made present, its memory celebrated, and its saving power applied.
  18. In the Sacrifice of the Mass and in the Sacrifice of the Cross the Sacrificial Gift and the Primary Sacrificing Priest are identical; only the nature and the mode of the offering are different.
  19. The Sacrifice of the Mass is not merely a sacrifice of praise and thanks-giving, but also a sacrifice of expiation and impetration.

XII. Penance

  1. The Church has received from Christ the power of remitting sins committed after Baptism.
  2. By the Church’s Absolution sins are truly and immediately remitted.
  3. The Church’s power to forgive sins extends to all sin without exception.
  4. The exercise of the Church’s power to forgive sins is a judicial act.
  5. The forgiveness of sins which takes place in the Tribunal of Penance is a true and proper Sacrament, which is distinct from the Sacrament of Baptism.
  6. Extra-sacramental justification is effected by perfect sorrow only when it is associated with the desire for the Sacrament (votum sacramenti).
  7. Contrition springing from the motive of fear is a morally good and supernatural act.
  8. The Sacramental confession of sins is ordained by God and is necessary for salvation.
  9. By virtue of Divine ordinance, all grievous sins according to kind and number, as well as those circumstances which alter their nature, are subject to the obligation of confession.
  10. The confession of venial sins is not necessary but is permitted and is useful.
  11. All temporal punishments for sin are not always remitted by God with the guilt of sin and the eternal punishment.
  12. The priest has the right and duty, according to the nature of the sins and the ability of the penitent, to impose salutary and appropriate works for satisfaction.
  13. Extra-sacramental penitential works, such as the performance of voluntary penitential practices and the patient bearing of trials sent by God, possess satisfactory value.
  14. The form of the Sacrament of Penance consists in the words of Absolution.
  15. Absolution, in association with the acts of the penitent, effects the forgiveness of sins.
  16. The principal effect of the Sacrament of Penance is the reconciliation of the sinner with God.
  17. The Sacrament of Penance is necessary for salvation to those who, after Baptism, fall into grievous sin.
  18. The sole possessors of the Church’s Power of Absolution are the bishops and priests.
  19. Absolution given by deacons, clerics or lower rank, and laymen is not Sacramental Absolution.
  20. The Sacrament of Penance can be received by any baptised person who, after Baptism, has committed a grievous or a venial sin.
  21. The Church possesses the power to grant Indulgences.
  22. The use of Indulgences is useful and salutary to the Faithful.

XIII. Holy Orders

  1. Holy Order is a true and proper Sacrament which was instituted by Jesus Christ.
  2. The consecration of priests is a Sacrament.
  3. Bishops are superior to priests.
  4. The Sacrament of Order confers sanctifying grace on the recipient.
  5. The Sacrament of Order imprints a character on the recipient.
  6. The Sacrament of Order confers a permanent spiritual power on the recipient.
  7. The ordinary dispenser of all grades of Order, both the sacramental and the non-sacramental, is the validly consecrated Bishop alone.

XIV. Matrimony

  1. Marriage is a true and proper Sacrament instituted by God.
  2. From the sacramental contract of marriage emerges the Bond of Marriage, which binds both marriage partners to a lifelong indivisible community of life.
  3. The Sacrament of Matrimony bestows sanctifying grace on the contracting parties.

XV. Anointing of the sick

  1. Extreme Unction or anointing of the sick is a true and proper Sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ.
  2. The remote matter of Extreme Unction is oil.
  3. The form consists in the prayer of the priest for the sick person which accomplishes the anointing.
  4. Extreme Unction gives the sick person sanctifying grace in order to arouse and strengthen him.
  5. Extreme Unction effects the remission of grievous sins still remaining and of venial sins.
  6. Extreme Unction sometimes effects the restoration of bodily health, if this be of spiritual advantage.
  7. Only Bishops and priests can validly administer Extreme Unction.
  8. Extreme Unction can be received only by the Faithful who are seriously ill.

XVI. The Last Things

  1. In the present order of salvation, death is a punishment for sin.
  2. All human beings subject to original sin are subject to the law of death.
  3. The souls of the just which in the moment of death are free from all guilt of sin and punishment for sin, enter into Heaven.
  4. The bliss of Heaven lasts for all eternity.
  5. The degree of perfection of the Beatific Vision granted to the just is proportioned to each one’s merit.
  6. The souls of those who die in the condition of personal grievous sin enter Hell.
  7. The punishment of Hell lasts for all eternity.
  8. The souls of the just which, in the moment of death, are burdened with venial sins or temporal punishment due to sins, enter purgatory.
  9. At the end of the world Christ will come again in glory to pronounce judgement.
  10. All the dead will rise again on the last day with their bodies.
  11. The dead will rise again with the same bodies as they had on earth.
  12. Christ, on His second coming, will judge all men.

Demikian jawaban yang dapat saya berikan dan semoga dapat menjawab pertanyaan Soenardi. Mungkin suatu saat, daftar tersebut harus diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia dan alangkah baiknya jika disertai dengan tahun-tahun kapan dogma tersebut ditetapkan. Mohon juga doanya agar katolisitas.org dapat menjadi alat Tuhan untuk mewartakan kebenaran.

Salam kasih dalam Kristus Tuhan,
stef – www.katolisitas.org

I. The Unity and Trinity of God

  1. God, our Creator and Lord, can be known with certainty, by the natural light of reason from created things.
  2. God’s existence is not merely an object of rational knowledge, but also an object of supernatural faith.
  3. God’s Nature is incomprehensible to men.
  4. The blessed in Heaven possess an immediate intuitive knowledge of the Divine Essence.
  5. The immediate vision of God transcends the natural power of cognition of the human soul, and is therefore supernatural.
  6. The soul, for the immediate vision of God, requires the light of glory.
  7. God’s Essence is also incomprehensible to the blessed in Heaven.
  8. The divine attributes are really identical among themselves and with the Divine Essence.
  9. God is absolutely perfect.
  10. God is actually infinite in every perfection.
  11. God is absolutely simple.
  12. There is only one God.
  13. The one God is, in the ontological sense, the true God.
  14. God possesses an infinite power of cognition.
  15. God is absolute veracity.
  16. God is absolutely faithful.
  17. God is absolute ontological goodness in Himself and in relation to others.
  18. God is absolute moral goodness or holiness.
  19. God is absolute benignity.
  20. God is absolutely immutable.
  21. God is eternal.
  22. God is immense or absolutely immeasurable.
  23. God is everywhere present in created space.
  24. God’s knowledge is infinite.
  25. God’s knowledge is purely and simply actual.
  26. God’s knowledge is subsistent.
  27. God knows all that is merely possible by the knowledge of simple intelligence.
  28. God knows all real things in the past, the present and the future.
  29. By the knowledge of vision, God also foresees the future free acts of rational creatures with infallible certainty.
  30. God’s Divine Will is infinite.
  31. God loves Himself of necessity, but loves and wills the creation of extra-divine things, on the other hand, with freedom.
  32. God is almighty.
  33. God is the Lord of the heavens and of the earth.
  34. God is infinitely just.
  35. God is infinitely merciful.
  36. In God there are three Persons, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. Each of the three Persons possesses the one (numerical) Divine Essence.
  37. In God there are two internal divine processions.
  38. The Divine Persons, not the Divine Nature, are the subject of the internal divine processions (in the active and in the passive sense).
  39. The Second Divine Person proceeds from the First Divine Person by generation, and therefore is related to Him as Son to Father.
  40. The Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and from the Son as from a single principle through a single spiration.
  41. The Holy Ghost does not proceed through generation but through spiration.
  42. The relations in God are really identical with the Divine Nature.
  43. The Three Divine Persons are in one another.
  44. All the ad extra activities of God are common to the three Persons.

II. God the Creator

  1. All that exists outside God was, in its whole substance, produced out of nothing by God.
  2. God was moved by His goodness to create the world.
  3. The world was created for the glorification of God.
  4. The Three Divine Persons are one single, common principle of creation.
  5. God created the world free from exterior compulsion and inner necessity.
  6. God has created a good world.
  7. The world had a beginning in time.
  8. God alone created the world.
  9. God keeps all created things in existence.
  10. God, through His Providence, protects and guides all that He has created.
  11. The first man was created by God.
  12. Man consists of two essential parts – a material body and a spiritual soul.
  13. The rational soul per se is the essential form of the body.
  14. Every human being possesses an individual soul.
  15. God has conferred on man a supernatural destiny.
  16. Our first parents, before the fall, were endowed with sanctifying grace.
  17. In addition to sanctifying grace, our first parents were endowed with the preternatural gift of bodily immortality.
  18. Our first parents in Paradise sinned grievously through transgression of the Divine probationary commandment.
  19. Through sin our first parents lost sanctifying grace and provoked the anger and the indignation of God.
  20. Our first parents became subject to death and to the dominion of the devil.
  21. Adam’s sin is transmitted to his posterity, not by imitation but by descent.
  22. Original sin is transmitted by natural generation.
  23. In the state of original sin man is deprived of sanctifying grace and all that this implies, as well as of the preternatural gifts of integrity.
  24. Souls who depart this life in the state of original sin are excluded from the Beatific Vision of God.
  25. In the beginning of time God created spiritual essences (angels) out of nothing.
  26. The nature of angels is spiritual.
  27. The evil spirits (demons) were created good by God; they became evil through their own fault.
  28. The secondary task of the good angels is the protection of men and care for their salvation.
  29. The devil possesses a certain dominion over mankind by reason of Adam’s sin.

III. God the Redeemer

  1. Jesus Christ is true God and true Son of God.
  2. Christ assumed a real body, not an apparent body.
  3. Christ assumed not only a body but also a rational soul.
  4. Christ was truly generated and born of a daughter of Adam, the Virgin Mary.
  5. The Divine and human natures are united hypostatically in Christ, that is, joined to each other in one Person.
  6. In the hypostatic union each of the two natures of Christ continues unimpaired, untransformed, and unmixed with each other.
  7. Each of the two natures in Christ possesses its own natural will and its own natural mode of operation.
  8. The hypostatic union of Christ’s human nature with the Divine Logos took place at the moment of conception.
  9. The hypostatic union was effected by the three Divine Persons acting in common.
  10. Only the second Divine Person became Man.
  11. Not only as God but also as man Jesus Christ is the natural Son of God.
  12. The God-Man Jesus Christ is to be venerated with one single mode of worship, the absolute worship of latria which is due to God alone.
  13. Christ’s Divine and human characteristics and activities are to be predicated of the one Word Incarnate.
  14. Christ was free from all sin, from original sin as well as from all personal sin.
  15. Christ’s human nature was passable.
  16. The Son of God became man in order to redeem men.
  17. Fallen man cannot redeem himself.
  18. The God-man Jesus Christ is a high priest.
  19. Christ offered Himself on the Cross as a true and proper sacrifice.
  20. Christ by His sacrifice on the Cross has ransomed us and reconciled us with God.
  21. Christ, through His passion and death, merited award from God.
  22. After His death, Christ’s Soul, which was separated from His Body, descended into the underworld.
  23. On the third day after His death, Christ rose gloriously from the dead.
  24. Christ ascended body and soul into Heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father.

 


IV. The Mother of the Redeemer

  1. Mary is truly the Mother of God.
  2. Mary was conceived without the stain of original sin.
    Mary is the Immaculate Conception.
  3. Mary conceived by the Holy Ghost without the cooperation of man.
  4. Mary bore her Son without any violation of her virginal integrity.
  5. After the birth of Jesus, Mary remained a Virgin.
  6. Mary was assumed body and soul into Heaven.

V. God the Sanctifier

  1. There is a supernatural intervention of God in the faculties of the soul, which precedes the free act of the will.
  2. There is a supernatural influence of God in the faculties of the soul which coincides in time with man’s free act of will.
  3. For every salutary act, internal supernatural grace of God (gratia elevans) is absolutely necessary.
  4. Internal supernatural grace is absolutely necessary for the beginning of faith and salvation.
  5. Without the special help of God, the justified cannot persevere to the end in justification.
  6. The justified person is not able for his whole life long to avoid sins, even venial sins, without the special privilege of the grace of God.
  7. Even in the fallen state, man can, by his natural intellectual power, know religious and moral truths.
  8. For the performance of a morally good action, sanctifying grace is not required.
  9. In the state of fallen nature, it is morally impossible for man without supernatural Revelation, to know easily, with absolute certainty, and without admixture of error, all religious and moral truths of the natural order.
  10. Grace cannot be merited by natural works either de condigno or de congruo.
  11. God gives all the just sufficient grace for the observation of the divine commandments.
  12. God, by His eternal resolve of Will, has predetermined certain men to eternal blessedness.
  13. God, by an eternal resolve of His Will, predestines certain men, on account of their foreseen sins, to eternal rejection.
  14. The human will remains free under the influence of efficacious grace, which is not irresistible.
  15. There is grace which is truly sufficient and yet remains inefficacious.
  16. The causes of Justification. (Defined by the Council of Trent) :
    1. The final cause is the honour of God and of Christ and the eternal life of men.
    2. The efficient cause is the mercy of God.
    3. The meritorious cause is Jesus Christ, who as mediator between God and men, has made atonement for us and merited the grace by which we are justified.
    4. The instrumental cause of the first justification is the Sacrament of Baptism. Thus it defines that Faith is a necessary precondition for justification (of adults).
    5. The formal cause is God’s Justice, not by which He Himself is just, but which He makes us just, that is, Sanctifying Grace.
  17. The sinner can and must prepare himself by the help of actual grace for the reception of the grace by which he is justified.
  18. The justification of an adult is not possible without faith.
  19. Besides faith, further acts of disposition must be present.
  20. Sanctifying grace sanctifies the soul.
  21. Sanctifying grace makes the just man a friend of God.
  22. Sanctifying grace makes the just man a child of God and gives him a claim to the inheritance of heaven.
  23. The three Divine or theological virtues of faith, hope and charity are infused with sanctifying grace.
  24. Without special Divine Revelation no one can know with the certainty of faith, if he be in the state of grace.
  25. The degree of justifying grace is not identical in all the just.
  26. Grace can be increased by good works.
  27. The grace by which we are justified may be lost, and is lost by every grievous sin.
  28. By his good works, the justified man really acquires a claim to supernatural reward from God.
  29. A just man merits for himself through each good work an increase of sanctifying grace, eternal life (if death finds him in the state of grace) and an increase in heavenly glory.

VI. The Catholic Church

  1. The Catholic Church was founded by the God-Man Jesus Christ.
  2. Christ founded the Catholic Church in order to continue His work of redemption for all time.
  3. Christ gave His Church a hierarchical constitution.
  4. The powers bestowed on the Apostles have descended to the Bishops.
  5. Christ appointed the Apostle Peter to be the first of all the Apostles and to be the visible Head of the whole Catholic Church, by appointing him immediately and personally to the primacy of jurisdiction.
  6. According to Christ’s ordinance, Peter is to have successors in his Primacy over the whole Catholic Church and for all time.
  7. The successors of Peter in the Primacy are the Bishops of Rome.
  8. The Pope possesses full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Catholic Church, not merely in matters of faith and morals, but also in Church discipline and in the government of the Church.
  9. The Pope is infallible when he speaks ex cathedra.
  10. By virtue of Divine right, the bishops possess an ordinary power of government over their dioceses.
  11. Christ founded the Catholic Church.
  12. Christ is the Head of the Catholic Church.
  13. In the final decision on doctrines concerning faith and morals, the Catholic Church is infallible.
  14. The primary object of the Infallibility is the formally revealed truths of Christian Doctrine concerning faith and morals.
  15. The totality of the Bishops is infallible, when they, either assembled in general council or scattered over the earth propose a teaching of faith or morals as one to he held by all the faithful.
  16. The Church founded by Christ is unique and one.
  17. The Church founded by Christ is holy.
  18. The Church founded by Christ is catholic.
  19. The Church founded by Christ is apostolic.
  20. Membership of the Catholic Church is necessary for all men for salvation.

VII. The Communion of Saints

  1. It is permissible and profitable to venerate the Saints in Heaven, and to invoke their intercession.
  2. It is permissible and profitable to venerate the relics of the Saints.
  3. It is permissible and profitable to venerate images of the Saints.
  4. The living faithful can come to the assistance of the souls in Purgatory by their intercessions.

VIII. The Sacraments

  1. The Sacraments of the New Covenant contain the grace which they signify, and bestow it on those who do not hinder it.
  2. The Sacraments work ex opere operato, that is, the sacraments operate by the power of the completed sacramental rite.
  3. All the Sacraments of the New Covenant confer sanctifying grace on the receivers.
  4. Three Sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders, imprint a character, that is an indelible spiritual mark, and, for this reason, cannot be repeated.
  5. The sacramental character is a spiritual mark imprinted on the soul.
  6. The sacramental character continues at least until the death of the bearer.
  7. All Sacraments of the New Covenant were instituted by Jesus Christ.
  8. There are seven Sacraments of the New Law.
  9. The Sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for the salvation of mankind.
  10. The validity and efficacy of the Sacrament is independent of the minister’s orthodoxy and state of grace.
  11. For the valid dispensing of the Sacraments it is necessary that the minister accomplish the Sacramental sign in the proper manner.
  12. The minister must have the intention of at least doing what the Church does.
  13. In the case of adult recipients moral worthiness is necessary for the worthy or fruitful reception of the Sacraments.

IX. Baptism

  1. Baptism is a true Sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ.
  2. The materia remota of the Sacrament of Baptism is true and natural water.
  3. Baptism confers the grace of justification.
  4. Baptism effects the remission of all punishments of sin, both eternal and temporal.
  5. Even if it be unworthily received, valid Baptism imprints on the soul of the recipient an indelible spiritual mark, the Baptismal Character, and for this reason, the Sacrament cannot be repeated.
  6. Baptism by water (Baptismus fluminis) is, since the promulgation of the Gospel, necessary for all men without exception for salvation.
  7. Baptism can be validly administered by anyone.
  8. Baptism can be received by any person in the wayfaring state who is not already baptised.
  9. The Baptism of young children is valid and licit.

X. Confirmation

  1. Confirmation is a true Sacrament properly so-called.
  2. Confirmation imprints on the soul an indelible spiritual mark, and for this reason, cannot be repeated.
  3. The ordinary minister of Confirmation is the Bishop alone.

XI. Holy Eucharist

  1. The Body and Blood of Jesus Christ are truly, really, and substantially present in the Eucharist.
  2. Christ becomes present in the Sacrament of the Altar by the transformation of the whole substance of the bread into His Body and of the whole substance of the wine into His Blood.
  3. The accidents of bread and wine continue after the change of the substance.
  4. The Body and Blood of Christ together with His Soul and Divinity and therefore, the whole Christ, are truly present in the Eucharist.
  5. The Whole Christ is present under each of the two Species.
  6. When either consecrated Species is divided, the Whole Christ is present in each part of the Species.
  7. After the Consecration has been completed the Body and Blood are permanently present in the Eucharist.
  8. The Worship of Adoration (latria) must be given to Christ present in the Eucharist.
  9. The Eucharist is a true Sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ.
  10. The matter for the consummation of the Eucharist is bread and wine.
  11. For children before the age of reason, the reception of the Eucharist is not necessary for salvation.
  12. Communion under two forms is not necessary for any individual members of the Faithful, either by reason of Divine precept or as a means of salvation.
  13. The power of consecration resides in a validly consecrated priest only .
  14. The Sacrament of the Eucharist can be validly received by every baptised person in the wayfaring state, including young children.
  15. For the worthy reception of the Eucharist, the state of grace as well as the proper and pious disposition are necessary.
  16. The Holy Mass is a true and proper Sacrifice.
  17. In the Sacrifice of the Mass, Christ’s Sacrifice on the Cross is made present, its memory celebrated, and its saving power applied.
  18. In the Sacrifice of the Mass and in the Sacrifice of the Cross the Sacrificial Gift and the Primary Sacrificing Priest are identical; only the nature and the mode of the offering are different.
  19. The Sacrifice of the Mass is not merely a sacrifice of praise and thanks-giving, but also a sacrifice of expiation and impetration.

XII. Penance

  1. The Church has received from Christ the power of remitting sins committed after Baptism.
  2. By the Church’s Absolution sins are truly and immediately remitted.
  3. The Church’s power to forgive sins extends to all sin without exception.
  4. The exercise of the Church’s power to forgive sins is a judicial act.
  5. The forgiveness of sins which takes place in the Tribunal of Penance is a true and proper Sacrament, which is distinct from the Sacrament of Baptism.
  6. Extra-sacramental justification is effected by perfect sorrow only when it is associated with the desire for the Sacrament (votum sacramenti).
  7. Contrition springing from the motive of fear is a morally good and supernatural act.
  8. The Sacramental confession of sins is ordained by God and is necessary for salvation.
  9. By virtue of Divine ordinance, all grievous sins according to kind and number, as well as those circumstances which alter their nature, are subject to the obligation of confession.
  10. The confession of venial sins is not necessary but is permitted and is useful.
  11. All temporal punishments for sin are not always remitted by God with the guilt of sin and the eternal punishment.
  12. The priest has the right and duty, according to the nature of the sins and the ability of the penitent, to impose salutary and appropriate works for satisfaction.
  13. Extra-sacramental penitential works, such as the performance of voluntary penitential practices and the patient bearing of trials sent by God, possess satisfactory value.
  14. The form of the Sacrament of Penance consists in the words of Absolution.
  15. Absolution, in association with the acts of the penitent, effects the forgiveness of sins.
  16. The principal effect of the Sacrament of Penance is the reconciliation of the sinner with God.
  17. The Sacrament of Penance is necessary for salvation to those who, after Baptism, fall into grievous sin.
  18. The sole possessors of the Church’s Power of Absolution are the bishops and priests.
  19. Absolution given by deacons, clerics or lower rank, and laymen is not Sacramental Absolution.
  20. The Sacrament of Penance can be received by any baptised person who, after Baptism, has committed a grievous or a venial sin.
  21. The Church possesses the power to grant Indulgences.
  22. The use of Indulgences is useful and salutary to the Faithful.

XIII. Holy Orders

  1. Holy Order is a true and proper Sacrament which was instituted by Jesus Christ.
  2. The consecration of priests is a Sacrament.
  3. Bishops are superior to priests.
  4. The Sacrament of Order confers sanctifying grace on the recipient.
  5. The Sacrament of Order imprints a character on the recipient.
  6. The Sacrament of Order confers a permanent spiritual power on the recipient.
  7. The ordinary dispenser of all grades of Order, both the sacramental and the non-sacramental, is the validly consecrated Bishop alone.

XIV. Matrimony

  1. Marriage is a true and proper Sacrament instituted by God.
  2. From the sacramental contract of marriage emerges the Bond of Marriage, which binds both marriage partners to a lifelong indivisible community of life.
  3. The Sacrament of Matrimony bestows sanctifying grace on the contracting parties.

XV. Anointing of the sick

  1. Extreme Unction or anointing of the sick is a true and proper Sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ.
  2. The remote matter of Extreme Unction is oil.
  3. The form consists in the prayer of the priest for the sick person which accomplishes the anointing.
  4. Extreme Unction gives the sick person sanctifying grace in order to arouse and strengthen him.
  5. Extreme Unction effects the remission of grievous sins still remaining and of venial sins.
  6. Extreme Unction sometimes effects the restoration of bodily health, if this be of spiritual advantage.
  7. Only Bishops and priests can validly administer Extreme Unction.
  8. Extreme Unction can be received only by the Faithful who are seriously ill.

XVI. The Last Things

  1. In the present order of salvation, death is a punishment for sin.
  2. All human beings subject to original sin are subject to the law of death.
  3. The souls of the just which in the moment of death are free from all guilt of sin and punishment for sin, enter into Heaven.
  4. The bliss of Heaven lasts for all eternity.
  5. The degree of perfection of the Beatific Vision granted to the just is proportioned to each one’s merit.
  6. The souls of those who die in the condition of personal grievous sin enter Hell.
  7. The punishment of Hell lasts for all eternity.
  8. The souls of the just which, in the moment of death, are burdened with venial sins or temporal punishment due to sins, enter purgatory.
  9. At the end of the world Christ will come again in glory to pronounce judgement.
  10. All the dead will rise again on the last day with their bodies.
  11. The dead will rise again with the same bodies as they had on earth.
  12. Christ, on His second coming, will judge all men.
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About Author

Stefanus Tay, MTS dan Ingrid Listiati, MTS adalah pasangan suami istri awam dan telah menyelesaikan program studi S2 di bidang teologi di Universitas Ave Maria - Institute for Pastoral Theology, Amerika Serikat.

14 Comments

  1. Artikel yang bagus.
    Terima kasih.

    Bagi yang susah berbahasa Inggris, ada satu tips :

    1. Silakan blok bagian artikel yg. berbahasa Inggris, lalu klik kanan dan klik copy.
    2. Buka website link to translate.google.co.id
    3. Klik kanan lalu klik paste artikel yang di-copy tadi di kolom sebelah kiri.
    4. Pilih/klik bahasa Indonesia di kolom sebelah kanan sbg. terjemahannya
    5. Selesai

    GBU all

  2. Shalom katolistas.org,

    Saya bingung dengan kata-kata Dr. Ludwig Ott yang berbunyi:

    God, by an eternal resolve of His Will, predestines certain men, on account of their foreseen sins, to eternal rejection.

    Bukannya semua orang ditentukan oleh Allah untuk hidup yang kekal dan diselamatkan. Kenapa kalimat di atas lebih berbau Calvinisme.

    Terima kasih.

    [dari katolisitas: silakan melihat tanya jawab ini - silakan klik. Lihat antecedent will dan consequent will.]

  3. Budi Darmawan Kusumo on

    Syalom Pak Stef

    Saya ingin bertanya :
    1. Apakah dogma – dogma di atas itu sudah termasuk didalam Magisterium Gereja ?
    2. Apa saja yang termasuk dalam Tradisi Suci ? Apakah setiap tradisi suci ada ayat yang berhubungan dengan Kitab Suci ?
    3. Apa saja yang termasuk dalam Magisterium ?
    4. Apakah KHK itu termasuk Magisterium ?

    Maaf agak merepotkan Pak Stef, karena saya sedang memberikan artikel pengajaran ke Persekutuan Doa Kharismatik Katolik Heman Salvation Ministry di Surabaya, jadi saya bisa menjelaskan dengan benar

    Terima kasih banyak Pak Stef & TUHAN YESUS selalu memberkati TIM KATOLISITAS

    • Shalom Budi Darmawan,

      1. Ya, dogma- dogma di atas adalah daftar dogma yang diajarkan oleh Magisterium Gereja Katolik. Setiap pernyataan dogma dalam daftar tersebut tersebut adalah pernyataan kebenaran iman (de fide) sehingga mensyaratkan ketaatan iman yang menyeluruh/katolik dari seluruh umat Katolik.

      2. Yang termasuk dalam Tradisi suci adalah pengajaran/ tulisan dari para Bapa Gereja yang tidak bertentangan dengan ajaran Magisterium Gereja.

      Silakan anda membaca kembali pengertian tentang Tradisi Suci, seperti yang pernah saya tulis dalam penjelasan terdahulu, di sini, silakan klik. Karena Tradisi Suci dan Kitab Suci mempunyai sumber yang sama, yaitu Sabda Allah sendiri, maka Tradisi Suci berkaitan erat dengan Kitab Suci. Dengan demikian setiap ajaran dalam Tradisi suci selalu mengacu pada suatu ayat dalam Kitab Suci, atau menjelaskan/ menjabarkan suatu ayat Kitab Suci.

      3. Magisterium adalah Wewenang Mengajar Gereja, yang terdiri dari Bapa Paus (sebagai pengganti Rasul Petrus) dan para uskup (sebagai pengganti para rasul) dalam persekutuan dengannya, yang diberikan karisma “tidak dapat sesat” (infalibilitas) oleh Yesus, yaitu dalam hal pengajaran mengenai iman dan moral. Selanjutnya tentang Magisterium, sudah pernah dibahas di sini, silakan klik.

      4. Kitab Hukum Kanonik bukan Magisterium, melainkan adalah kitab hukum yang dikeluarkan oleh Magisterium Gereja Katolik, dan kitab hukum ini menjabarkan secara praktis aturan- aturan pelaksanaan dalam kehidupan menggereja, yang merupakan konsekuensi dari Dogma dan ajaran- ajaran Gereja lainnya. Karena kitab hukum ini merupakan aturan praktis, maka terdapat kemungkinan perubahan/ penyesuaian, jika dipandang perlu oleh Gereja, tanpa mengubah doktrin yang mendasarinya. Hal ini sudah pernah terjadi, yaitu Kitab Hukum Kanonik pada tahun 1983 yang berlaku sekarang ini menggantikan Kitab Hukum Kanonik 1919.

      Salam kasih dalam Kristus Tuhan,
      Ingrid Listiati- katolisitas.org

      • Budi Darmawan Kusumo on

        Syalom saudaraku Bu Ingrid.

        Mungkin ada kata – kata yang lebih tepat dari Bu Ingrid :
        “Dengan demikian setiap ajaran dalam Tradisi suci selalu mengacu pada suatu ayat dalam Kitab Suci, atau menjelaskan/ menjabarkan suatu ayat Kitab Suci”

        Seharusnya :
        “Dengan demikian setiap ajaran dalam Alkitab selalu mengacu pada Tradisi Suci karena Alkitab diambil dari Tradisi Suci”/

        Betul tidak ?

        • Shalom Budi Darmawan,
          Mari kita mengacu kepada Katekismus:

          KGK 80 “Tradisi Suci dan Kitab Suci berhubungan erat sekali dan terpadu. Sebab keduanya mengalir dari sumber ilahi yang sama, dan dengan cara tertentu bergabung menjadi satu dan menjurus ke arah tujuan yang sama” (Dei Verbum 9). Kedua-duanya menghadirkan dan mendaya-gunakan misteri Kristus di dalam Gereja, yang menjanjikan akan tinggal bersama orang-orang-Nya “sampai akhir zaman” (Mat 28:20).

          Dari pengertian di atas, maka kita ketahui bahwa karena keduanya berasal dari sumber Iliahi yang sama, maka Tradisi Suci dan Kitab Suci erat berhubungan, keduanya dapat saling mengacu satu sama lain. Jika anda membaca penjabaran ajaran Magisterium Gereja Katolik (yang adalah Tradisi Suci) di situ terdapat banyak sekali acuan ayat Kitab Suci, contohnya adalah dokumen Konsili Vatikan II, yang juga dapat anda baca di situs ini. Namun pernyataan anda bahwa Kitab Suci mengacu kepada Tradisi Suci, juga benar, sebab Kitab Suci yang merupakan Sabda Allah yang tertulis, juga tadinya sebelum dituliskan, disampaikan secara lisan/ tidak tertulis, sebagai Tradisi Suci. Seperti kita ketahui, Injil Markus berasal dari penulisan khotbah- khotbah Rasul Petrus dan Injil Lukas dari penulisan khotbah-khotbah Rasul Paulus.

          Demikian, semoga menjadi lebih jelas.

          Salam kasih dalam Kristus Tuhan,
          Ingrid Listiati- katolisitas.org

  4. Gereja katolik merupakan salah satu organisasi tertua yang memiliki banyak kekayaan budaya dari berbagai belahan dunia.
    Pertanyaan:
    Mana unsur dari budaya dan tradisi katolik yang layak dipertahankan , mana yang lebih merupakan asesoris , boleh ada boleh tidak karena tidak merupakan inti ajaran iman.

    • Shalom Herman Jay,

      Agaknya anda perlu membedakan apa yang disebut sebagai Tradisi (huruf besar) dan tradisi (huruf kecil). Tradisi Suci dengan huruf besar ini bukan merupakan budaya, tetapi merupakan pengajaran lisan dari Kristus dan para rasul, yang diturunkan dengan setia oleh Gereja Katolik. Karena anda bertanya, Tradisi mana yang tidak dapat diubah/ harus dipertahankan, maka jawabannya adalah Tradisi Suci, yang tertuang dalam Dogma Gereja Katolik. Saya menyertakannya daftarnya di sini, silakan klik. Selanjutnya, perlu juga diketahui tingkatan pengajaran Magisterium Gereja Katolik, dan semua yang termasuk di dalam tingkatan Credenda dan Tenenda, tidak dapat diubah. Mengenai tingkatan pengajaran Magisterium ini, dapat anda baca di sini, silakan klik

      Selanjutnya, di luar Tradisi Suci itu memang ada tradisi lain seperti, misalnya ketentuan puasa dan pantang, tradisi doa rosario (yang mengalami perkembangan dari sejak permulaan, dan bahkan pada tahun 2002 permenungan Peristiwa- peristiwa Terang di tambahkan), tradisi menggunakan daun palma dan arak- arakan pada Minggu Palem, tradisi nyanyian passio pada perayaan Pekan Suci, tradisi menggunakan lilin pada Malam Paska, dst. Tradisi-tradisi ini bukan merupakan sesuatu yang doktrinal, dan karenanya dapat mengalami perubahan, jika dipandang perlu oleh Gereja. Demikian juga halnya, jika liturgi memasukkan juga tradisi lainnya yang sehubungan dengan daerah setempat, seperti penggunaan lagu-lagu dengan irama lagu- lagu daerah atau alat musik tradisional, dst, dapat berubah, dan tidak merupakan sesuatu yang baku.

      Salam kasih dalam Kristus Tuhan,
      Ingrid Listiati- http://www.katolisitas.org

  5. Hai,
    seronok membaca penjelasan dan penerangan web ini berkenaan dengan Dogma. Di sini saya hendak bertanya berkenaan dengan doktrin.
    1. Apakah makna doktrin dari kaca mata gereja Katolik?
    2. Bagaimana doktrin itu terhasil?
    3. Adakah setiap stament/kenyataan(lisan/bertulis) daripada magesterium adalah doktrin?
    4. Adakah Katekismus Gereja Katolik adalah satu daripada doktrin gereja Katolik?

    Maaf mungkin saya bertanya soalan yang tidak sepatutnya tetapi ‘dogma dan doktrin’ telah lama bermain-main di fikiran saya.Saya sangat berterima kasih sekiranya Katolisitas dapat membantu saya.Terima Kasih.

    • Shalom Semang,

      Terima kasih atas pertanyaannya tentang doktrin. Berikut ini adalah jawaban yang dapat saya berikan:

      1) Doktrin adalah merupakan suatu pengajaran dari Gereja Katolik mengenai iman dan moral yang dipercayakan oleh Kristus melalui para rasul, dan diteruskan oleh Gereja Katolik untuk keselamatan umat. Semua dogma adalah termasuk dalam doktrin, namun tidak semua doktrin termasuk dalam dogma. Tentang perbedaan antara doktrin dan dogma, pernah saya saya tulis di sini (silakan klik). Pengajaran dari Gereja Katolik terbagi juga menjadi lima tingkatan: Credenda, Tenenda, Obsequium terhadap pengajaran, Obsequium terhadap otoritas, Servandi, yang masing-masing tingkatan menuntut tanggapan yang berbeda dari umat Allah. Silakan melihat keterangan lengkap tentang hal ini di sini (silakan klik).

      2) Bagaimana doktrin terjadi? Hal ini tergantung dari tingkatan doktrin:

      Apostolic Letter Motu Proprio “Ad tuendam fidem” oleh Paus Yohanes Paulus II:
      1. Credenda (kan. 750, 1) artinya, ‘to be believed’.
      Berupa: Sabda Allah (dalam hal ini penentuan kanon Alkitab), deposit iman (deposit of faith), dogma (silakan melihat daftar dogma di sini – silakan klik), artikel iman
      Tanggapan yang disyaratkan: harus dipercaya dengan iman (catholic and theological faith).
      2. Tenenda (kan 750, 2) artinya, ‘to be held’
      Berupa: semua yang dinyatakan secara definitif tentang iman dan moral (termasuk hal-hal yang ditentukan untuk melindungi dan menjaga penerapan hal-hal credenda)
      Tanggapan yang disyaratkan: harus dipegang dengan teguh dan dipertahankan; dan tidak boleh ditolak.
      3. Obsequium terhadap pengajaran Bapa Paus dan kolese para Uskup (kan. 752).
      Berupa: Doktrin tentang iman dan moral yang dinyatakan oleh Paus dan kolese Uskup ketika melaksanakan wewenang mengajar.
      Tanggapan yang disyaratkan: ketaatan religius dari akal budi dan kehendak bebas dan menghindari hal-hal yang tidak sejalan dengan hal itu.
      4. Obsequium terhadap otoritas dari para uskup (kan. 753).
      Berupa: Pengajaran otentik dari seorang uskup atau beberapa uskup.
      Tanggapan yang disyaratkan: ketaatan religius dari akal budi kepada otoritas.
      5. Servandi (kan. 754)
      Berupa: Konstitusi/ dekrit dari Paus/ uskup yang menyatakan pengajaran atau yang menolak pengajaran yang salah.
      Tanggapan yang disyaratkan: Obligasi untuk melaksanakannya.

      3) Apakah setiap pernyataan (lisan/tertulis) dari magisterium adalah doktrin? Selama pernyataan tersebut adalah memang dengan tujuan untuk mengajar dan memberikan pemaparan ajaran iman – yang senantiasa dilakukan secara tertulis -, maka dapat dikatakan bahwa pernyataan tersebut adalah doktrin. Namun, kita harus membedakan pengajaran tersebut di tingkatan mana (lihat lima tingkatan di atas).

      4) Katekismus Gereja Katolik adalah doktrin Gereja Katolik, walaupun tidak semuanya merupakan dogma. Paus Yohanes Paulus II di dalam Apostolic Constitution – Fidei Depositum (dalam pendahuluan Katekismus Gereja Katolik) mengatakan “Katekismus Gereja Katolik”, yang saya sahkan pada tanggal 25 Juni 1992 dan yang penerbitannya saya tetapkan hari ini berdasarkan jabatan apostolik saya, adalah satu penjelasan iman Gereja dan ajaran Katolik seperti yang disaksikan dan diterangi oleh Kitab Suci, oleh tradisi apostolik dan oleh Wewenang Mengajar Gereja. Saya mengakuinya sebagai alat yang sah dan legitim dalam pelayanan persekutuan Gereja, selanjutnya sebagai norma yang pasti untuk ajaran iman. Semoga ia dapat melayani pembaharuan yang untuknya Roh Kudus tanpa henti-hentinya memanggil Gereja Allah, tubuh Kristus, penziarah di jalan menuju terang Kerajaan abadi.
      Pengesahan dan penerbitan “Katekismus Gereja Katolik” merupakan, satu pelayanan yang dapat diberikan pengganti Petrus kepada Gereja Katolik yang kudus dan kepada semua Gereja lokal, yang hidup dalam damai dan persekutuan dengan Takhta Apostolik Roma: yaitu pelayanan untuk menguatkan dan meneguhkan semua murid Tuhan Yesus di dalam iman (bdk. Luk 22:23), dan untuk mengukuhkan ikatan kesatuan dalam iman apostolik yang sama.

      Semoga dapat keterangan di atas dapat menjawab pertanyaan Semang.

      Salam kasih dalam Kristus Tuhan,
      stef – http://www.katolisitas.org

  6. Saya bisa mengerti bahwa mestinya terdapat (amat) banyak dogma sejak mulai diadakan (kapan ya?) sehingga setidak-tidaknya akan diperlukan banyak waktu. Sambil menunggu dikumpulkan dan ditayangaknnya kumpulan dogam itu, dapatkah ditampilkan satu dua di antaranya dengan penjelasan tentang: kapan diresmikan, oleh siapa, pada forum apa, apa alasannya.

    Bila orang Katolik tidak mempercayai dogma, berdosakah dia? Kalau berdosa, berdosa melawan perintah Tuhan yang mana?
    Terima kasih
    Soenardi

    [dari katolisitas: telah dijawab di atas - silakan klik]

  7. Shalom bu Ingrid
    Maaf saya kurang mengerti kalimat ini
    “Gereja Katolik adalah Gereja universal di bawah pimpinan para uskup yang mengajarkan doktrin yang lengkap”.
    Bs tolong dijelaskan, doktrin yg dimaksud apa aja?
    Thx b4, Tuhan Memberkati.

    Salam dalam Kasih Kristus;
    Natalie

  8. Shalom NataLie,
    Doktrin yang lengkap di sini maksudnya adalah pengajaran yang berasal dari Kitab Suci dan Tradisi Suci para rasul, seperti yang disampaikan oleh Magisterium Gereja Katolik. Secara umum, doktrin tersebut adalah yang berkaitan dengan Credo/ Syahadat Aku Percaya, yaitu yang mencakup Allah Bapa, Allah Putera, Allah Roh Kudus, Gereja Katolik sebagai yang didirikan oleh Tuhan Yesus, Persekutuan para Kudus, Bunda Maria sebagai Bunda Kristus dan Bunda Gereja, Ketujuh sakramen, Empat hal terakhir: Kematian, Penghakiman, Neraka dan Surga. Pengajaran ini secara jelas dan rinci disampaikan dalam Katekismus Gereja Katolik, beserta dengan kutipan ayat- ayat Kitab Suci yang mendukungnya dan juga pengajaran dari para Bapa Gereja. Selanjutnya, dalam Katekismus juga disampaikan makna kehidupan di dalam Kristus yang menekankan prinsip dasar martabat manusia dan hati nurani, hidup berkomunitas, hukum dan kasih karunia, penjelasan tentang kesepuluh perintah Allah, dan tentang Doa, secara khusus, tentang makna Doa Bapa kami.
    Silakan membaca artikel di atas untuk mengetahui daftar dogma, yang harus diterima oleh umat Katolik dengan iman, silakan klik.
    Selanjutnya tentang prinsip Gereja Universal (katolik) yang dipimpin oleh Uskup (artinya mempunyai jalur Apostolik) dapat dibaca di sini, silakan klik.
    Para Uskup merupakan penerus para Rasul, sehingga maksudnya di sini bersifat Apostolik, yang mengajarkan ajaran yang berasal dari Kitab Suci dan Tradisi Suci Para Rasul. Sifat katolik dan apostolik merupakan dua dari ke-empat tanda Gereja sejati, yaitu, satu, kudus, katolik (universal) dan apostolik.

    Salam kasih dalam Kristus Tuhan,
    Ingrid Listiati- katolisitas.org

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